Visiting AFYONKARAHISAR, Turkey (6/2018)
Afyonkarahisar (Turkish pronunciation: [afjonkaɾahiˈsaɾ], Turkish: afyon poppy, opium, kara black, hisar fortress) is a city in western Turkey, the capital of Afyon Province. Afyon is in mountainous countryside inland from the Aegean coast, 250 km (155 mi) south-west of Ankara along the Akarçay River. Elevation 1,021 m (3,350 ft). Population (2010 census) 173,100. In Turkey, Afyonkarahisar stands out as a capital city of thermal and spa, an important junction of railway, highway and air traffic in West-Turkey, and the grounds where independence had been won. In addition, Afyonkarahisar is one of the top leading provinces in agriculture, globally renowned for its marble and globally largest producer of pharmaceutical opium.
The top of the rock in Afyon has been fortified for a long time. It was known to the Hittites as Hapanuwa, and was later occupied by Phrygians, Lydians and Achaemenid Persians until it was conquered by Alexander the Great. After the death of Alexander the city (now known as Akroinοn (Ακροϊνόν) or Nikopolis (Νικόπολις) in Ancient Greek), was ruled by the Seleucids and the kings of Pergamon, then Rome and Byzantium. The Byzantine emperor Leo III after his victory over Arab besiegers in 740 renamed the city Nicopolis (Greek for city of victory). The Seljuq Turks then arrived in 1071 and changed its name to Kara Hissar (black castle) after the ancient fortress situated upon a volcanic rock 201 meters above the town. Following the dispersal of the Seljuqs the town was occupied by the Sâhib Ata and then the Germiyanids.
The castle was much fought over during the Crusades and was finally conquered by the Ottoman Sultan Beyazid I in 1392 but was lost after the invasion of Timur Lenk in 1402. It was recaptured in 1428 or 1429.
The area thrived during the Ottoman Empire, as the centre of opium production and Afyon became a wealthy city. In 1902, a fire burning for 32 hours destroyed parts of the city.
During the 1st World War British prisoners of war who had been captured at Gallipoli were housed here in an empty Armenian church at the foot of the rock. During the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922) campaign (part of the Turkish War of Independence) Afyon and the surrounding hills were occupied by Greek forces. However, it was recovered on 27 August 1922, a key moment in the Turkish counter-attack in the Aegean region. After 1923 Afyon became a part of the Republic of Turkey.
The region was a major producer of raw opium (hence the name Afyon) until the late 1960s when under international pressure, from the USA in particular, the fields were burnt and production ceased. Now poppies are grown under a strict licensing regime. They do not produce raw opium any more but derive Morphine and other opiates using the poppy straw method of extraction.
24 Hours in Istanbul - VIDEO TRAVEL GUIDE (Istanbul, Turkey)
Here is a compilation video from our few days in Istanbul! You can see most of the sights in only 24 hours! I have featured some of the best parts! I do highly recommend the Bosphorus Ferry (Europe to Asia Boat)! It's very very cheap 2.45 lira (just under USD $1) and it takes you from Europe to Asia, while staying in Instanbul! The views from the boat are also amazing! The asian side is a lot cheaper to shop, so consider both options when visiting Istanbul!
Some of the places from the video:
Hagia Sophia Museum Church (Ayasofya)
Sultanahmet Square Historic District
Bosporus Strait and Istanbul Coastline
Outdoor Markets and Flea Markets
.Istanbul (, also US: ; Turkish: İstanbul [isˈtanbuɫ] (listen)), formerly known as Byzantium and Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural and historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait (which separates Europe and Asia) between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives in suburbs on the Asian side of the Bosporus. With a total population of around 15 million residents in its metropolitan area, Istanbul is one of the world's most populous cities, ranking as the world's fourth largest city proper and the largest European city. The city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (coterminous with Istanbul Province). Istanbul is a bridge between the East and West.
Founded under the name of Byzantion (Βυζάντιον) on the Sarayburnu promontory around 660 BCE, the city grew in size and influence, becoming one of the most important cities in history. After its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 CE, it served as an imperial capital for almost 16 centuries, during the Roman/Byzantine (330–1204), Latin (1204–1261), Palaiologos Byzantine (1261–1453) and Ottoman (1453–1922) empires. It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times, before the Ottomans conquered the city in 1453 CE and transformed it into an Islamic stronghold and the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate. Under the name Constantinople it was the Ottoman capital until 1923. The capital was then moved to Ankara and the city was now called Istanbul.
The city held the strategic position between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. It was also on the historic Silk Road. It controlled rail networks to Europe and the Middle East, and was the only sea route between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. Russia always wanted control so it would have an outlet. In 1923 Ankara was chosen instead as the new Turkish capital after the Turkish War of Independence, and the city's name was changed to Istanbul. Nevertheless the city maintained its prominence in geopolitical and cultural affairs. The population of the city has increased tenfold since the 1950s, as migrants from across Anatolia have moved in and city limits have expanded to accommodate them. Arts, music, film, and cultural festivals were established towards the end of the 20th century and continue to be hosted by the city today. Infrastructure improvements have produced a complex transportation network in the city.
Approximately 12.56 million foreign visitors arrived in Istanbul in 2015, five years after it was named a European Capital of Culture, making the city the world's fifth most popular tourist destination. The city's biggest attraction is its historic center, partially listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and its cultural and entertainment hub is across the city's natural harbor, the Golden Horn, in the Beyoğlu district. Considered a global city, Istanbul has one of the fastest-growing metropolitan economies in the world. It hosts the headquarters of many Turkish companies and media outlets and accounts for more than a quarter of the country's gross domestic product.
Video Title: 24 Hours in Istanbul - VIDEO TRAVEL GUIDE (Istanbul, Turkey)
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Show Me Turkey - Western Blacksea Trailer | Bana Türkiye'yi Göster - Batı Karadeniz Fragman
Batı Karadeniz seyahat videosundan önce fragmanını paylaşmak istedim. Yakın bir süre sonra da videoyu paylaşma dileğiyle.
Muzik: The Guardian by Ender Guney
I wanted to share the trailer of my western blacksea travel video before sharing the actual video. I am hoping to share it with you soon as well.
Music: The Guardian by Ender Guney
TURKEY: Tea and culinary delights - 1. Istanbul - Ankara
Travel across Turkey became the next stage of the World without Visas project, within which Valery Shanin travels only around the countries, visa-free for Russians.
On the travel across Turkey and Northern Cyprus, his fellow travelers were Maynur Klementyeva from the island of Sakhalin, Mikhail Ivanov from Alma-Ata and Marina Osipova from Kaluga.
Istanbul is a city with a thousand-year old history. The city of palaces, mosques, parks, fountains, eastern markets and bustling streets. The bridge connects Sultanakhmet's region with the region of Galatian, which is on the opposite side of the Golden Horn gulf. Fishermen have been stationed here permanently since long time ago.
The fish is sold directly there — under the fishermen.
On the ground level of the bridge, there is a long line of cafes, considered for tourists, and restaurants. The prices are higher here, but the atmosphere is special. You are served the fish, that flew out of the water, literally past your nose, only 5 minutes ago.
Istiklyal Street comes back to life with the nightfall. They are frying kebabs directly in the show-window. The sellers-acrobats are evidently enjoying the process of selling ice cream. There is a lot of movement in the shops. Seems like, all city has come on this street with the nightfall. Here they have an ancient tram. It is still used for its original purpose — the transportation of passengers. But in the evenings, the tram car receives one more function. It becomes a mobile concert venue.
The small less-known town of Iznik was called Nicea in the ancient times. Exactly here, in the fourth century, where the Ecumenical council took place, the Christian symbol of Faith was accepted. And in the 12th century, the city was the capital of the powerful Byzantine empire.
Bursa — the homeland of the Ottoman Empire. Many ancient mosques have remained here. A person can pay a visit only when he is pure - both in mind and in body.
Kutahya — one of the most ancient cities on the territory of Turkey. At the top of the rock, towering over the center of the Old town, there are the preserved fortress ruins, that existed already at the time of the Romans.
Aizanoi used to occupy an extensive territory. Only a small part of it is dug out. Random constructions and fragments can be seen everywhere. Directly in the middle of the village, suddenly you can come across the foundation of an antique temple, and next to it - the antique street decorated with marble columns.
In Afyon, they love oriental delights and know how to make them.
The family of Mirimoglu makes halva, lucum, candies and baklava.
The quality of the highest rank. And reasonable prices.
The City of Pessinus, by the legend, was founded by the mother of the famous Phrygian Tsar, Midas. The huge meteorite of a cone-shaped form used to be kept on the altar of the Temple of the Goddess Kibela. Later it was transferred to Rome. The city lived well without the meteorite. It was destroyed in 715 by Arabs. The excavations began in 1967 and still continues. They have already succeeded to dig out the foundations of several temples, some separate columns and almost the whole amphitheater.
Gordion - everybody who didn't sleep through their history lessons at school, knows about this city. It was here, where Alexander the Great of Macedonia, was shown a difficult knot. It was known, that a person, who can untangle it, will become the lord of the world. Alexander got his sword out and split the knot in one resolute strike. At the very beginning of the 20th century, excavation works have begun.
Ankara — the capital of Turkey. In the center, houses occupy all available territory, molding closely to each other on the hill slopes.
Amasya is a city in northern Turkey and is the provincial capital of Amasya Province.
The city of Amasya (Turkish pronunciation: [aˈmasja]), the Amaseia or Amasia of antiquity, stands in the mountains above the Black Sea coast, set apart from the rest of Anatolia in a narrow valley along the banks of the Yeşilırmak River. Although near the Black Sea, this area is high above the coast and has an inland climate, well-suited to growing apples, for which Amasya province, one of the provinces in north-central Anatolia Turkey, is famed. It was the home of the geographer Strabo and the birthplace of the 15th century scholar and physician Amirdovlat Amasiatsi. Located in a narrow cleft of the Yesilirmak (Iris) river, it has a history of 7,500 years which has left many traces still evident today.
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AnItkabir in Ankara, Turkey
Anıtkabir (literally, memorial tomb) is the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the leader of the Turkish War of Independence and the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. It is located in Ankara and was designed by architects Professor Emin Onat and Assistant Professor Ahmet Orhan Arda, whose proposal beat 48 other entries from several countries in a competition held by the Turkish Government in 1941 for a monumental tomb for Atatürk.
The site is also the final resting place of İsmet İnönü, the second President of Turkey, who was interred there after he died in 1973. His tomb faces the Atatürk Mausoleum, on the opposite side of the Ceremonial Ground.
The mausoleum was depicted on various Turkish banknotes during 1966–1987 and 1997–2009 and was included in the Turkish Chamber of Civil Engineers list of the fifty civil engineering feats in Turkey, a list of remarkable engineering projects realized in the first 50 years of the chamber.
The great leader of Turkish Independence War and Turkish Revolution and the founder of Turkish Republic Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’s life, with full of struggles for Turkish land's freedom and endeavours to raise the Turkish Nation to the level of contemporary civilization, lasted 57 years. It ended on 10 November 1938 and the great leader passed to eternity.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk is a great leader, achieving to make Turkey a member of contemporary civilization with all its institutions, has a special place in the history of humanities. The idea to build a mausoleum to reflect his greatness in every respect and to present his thoughts on principles, his reforms and modernization, was the common desire of the Turkish Nation in deepest grief of losing Atatürk.
Before building of Anitkabir, Anittepe’s (Monument Hill ) name was Rasattepe (Observation Hill) because there was an observatory on this hill.
There were also tumuluses (graves) belonging to Phrygian civilization of 3rd Century BC on this hill. Archeological excavations took place to remove these tombs after the decision was given to build Anitkabir on Rasattepe. Remains found on these excavations are on display in the museum of Anatolian Civilizations.
The first stage to start the construction was the expropriation of the land after deciding on the Anitkabir project. Actual construction of Anitkabir commenced on 9 October 1944 with a splendid ceremony by laying the first stone of the foundation. Construction of Anitkabir took nine years in four stages.
The Anitkabir project originally had a vaulted ceiling above the mausoleum carried by the perimeter columns. On 4 December 1951 the Government inquired the architects of the possibility of shortening the time of construction by lowering the 28 m. high ceiling of the Hall of Honours.
After studying the subject, architects concluded that it was possible to cover the ceiling with a reinforced concrete slab instead of a stone vault. This change had reduced the weight of the ceiling and, therefore, certain risks were eliminated further.
Easy to process porous travertine with various colours was used on external cladding of the concrete surfaces and marble was used for the inside surfaces of the mausoleum.
White travertine that was used for sculpture groups, for lions figures and the mausoleum colons, is brought in from Pinarbasi town of Kayseri and white travertine used inside the towers is brought in from Polatli and Malikoy. Red and black travertine used for paving the ceremonial ground and floors of towers were brought in from Kayseri, Bogazköprü region and yellow travertine brought in from Cankiri, Eskipazar was used for building the Victory relief, Hall of Honours external walls and perimeter colons of the ceremonial ground.
Red, black and cream colour marbles used on the floor of the Hall of Honours were brought from Hatay, Adana and Canakkale, and for the internal walls, tiger-hide patterned marble from Afyon and green marble brought from Bilecik. Monolithic tomb stone weighing 40 tons was brought from Osmaniye, Adana and the white marble covering sides of the sarcophagus were from Afyon.
IV. ANITKABIR'S ARCHITECTURAL PROPERTIES
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A Short Tour Of Turkey
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Visiting Gallipoli peninsula, Turkey (6/2018)
The Gallipoli peninsula (/ɡəˈlɪpəli, ɡæ-/; Turkish: Gelibolu Yarımadası; Greek: Χερσόνησος της Καλλίπολης, Chersónisos tis Kallípolis) is located in the southern part of East Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles strait to the east.
Gallipoli is the Italian form of the Greek name Καλλίπολις (Kallípolis), meaning Beautiful City,the original name of the modern town of Gelibolu. In antiquity, the peninsula was known as the Thracian Chersonese (Greek: Θρακική Χερσόνησος, Thrakiké Chersónesos; Latin: Chersonesus Thracica).
World War I: Gallipoli Campaign - ANZAC Cove: During World War I, British and colonial forces attacked the peninsula in 1915, seeking to secure a route to relieve their eastern ally, Russia. The Ottomans set up defensive fortifications along the peninsula and the attackers were eventually repulsed.
In early 1915, attempting to seize a strategic advantage in World War I by capturing Istanbul (formerly Constantinople), the British authorised an attack on the peninsula. The first Australian troops landed at ANZAC Cove on early morning 25 April 1915, and after eight months of heavy fighting the survivors were withdrawn around the end of the year.
The campaign was one of the greatest Ottoman victories during the war and is considered a major Allied failure. In Turkey, it is regarded as a defining moment in the nation's history: a final surge in the defence of the motherland as the Ottoman Empire crumbled. The struggle formed the basis for the Turkish War of Independence and the founding of the Republic of Turkey eight years later under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who first rose to prominence as a commander at Gallipoli.
The Gallipoli Star was a military decoration created by the Ottoman Empire in 1915 and awarded for the duration of World War I.
The campaign was the first major military action of Australia and New Zealand as independent dominions, and is often considered to mark the birth of national consciousness in those nations. The date of the landing, 25 April, is known as Anzac Day. It remains the most significant commemoration of military casualties and veterans in Australia and New Zealand.
On the Allied side one of Ryder's promoters of the expedition was Britain's First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill, whose reputation took years to recover.
Prior to the Allied landings in April 1915, Ottoman Empire deported Greek residents from Gallipoli and surrounding region and from the islands in the sea of Marmara, to the interior where they were at the mercy of hostile Turks. The Greeks had little time to pack and the Ottoman authorities permitted them to take only some bedding and the rest was handed over to the Government. Also, Greek houses and properties were plundered by the Turks. A testimony of a deportee described how the deportees were forced onto crowded steamers, standing room only; how, on disembarking, men of military age were removed (for forced labour in the labour battalions of the Ottoman army) and how the rest were ‘scattered… among the farms like ownerless cattle’.
The Metropolitan of Gallipoli on 17 July 1915, wrote that the extermination of the Christian refugees was methodical. It also mentions that: The Turks, like beasts of prey, immediately plundered all the Christians' property and carried it off. The inhabitants and refugees of my district are entirely without shelter, awaiting to be sent no one knows where .... In addition many Greeks died from hunger and there were frequent cases of rape among women and young girls, as well as their conversion to Islam.
Mount Ararat, Ağrı Province, Turkey, Asia
Mount Ararat is a snow-capped, dormant volcanic cone in Turkey. It has two peaks: Greater Ararat (the highest peak in Turkey, and the entire Armenian plateau with an elevation of 5,137 m or 16,854 ft) and Lesser Ararat (with an elevation of 3,896 m or 12,782 ft). The Ararat massif is about 40 km (25 mi) in diameter. The Iran-Turkey boundary skirts east of Lesser Ararat, the lower peak of the Ararat massif. It was in this area that, by the Tehran Convention of 1932, a border change was made in Turkey's favour, allowing it to occupy the eastern flank of Lesser Ararat. Mount Ararat in Judeo-Christian tradition is associated with the Mountains of Ararat where, according to the book of Genesis, Noah's ark came to rest. It also plays a significant role in Armenian culture and irredentism. The mountain can be seen on the Coat of arms of Armenia. Ararat - The Bible says that Noah's ark landed on the mountains of Ararat. This does not refer to any specific mountain or peak, but rather a mountain range within the region of Ararat, which was the name of an ancient proto-Armenian kingdom also known as Urartu. Nonetheless, one particular tradition identifies the mountain as Mount Masis, the highest peak in the Armenian Highland, which is therefore called Mount Ararat. (As opposed to the Armenian and European tradition, Semitic tradition identifies the mountain as Judi Dagh located in Turkey near Cizre). According to the medieval Armenian historian Moses of Khoren in his History of Armenia, the plain of Ayrarat (directly north of the mountain) got its name after King Ara the Handsome. Here the Assyrian Queen Semiramis is said to have lingered for a few days after the death of Ara. According to Thomson, the mountain is called Ararat corresponding to Ayrarat, the name of the province. Ağrı Dağı (Mountain of Ağrı) - The Ottoman Turkish name was 'Aghur Dagh' اغـر طﺎﻍ which means 'heavy mountain'. Ağrı is also a province in the Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey, which derived its name from the mountain in 1949. During the Ottoman Empire era the Ağrı village was originally called Karakilise (black church). Masis (Armenian: Մասիս) - is the Armenian name for the peak of Ararat, the plural 'Masiq' (Armenian: Մասիք) may refer to both peaks. The History of Armenia derives the name from a king Amasya, the great-grandson of the Armenian patriarch Hayk, who is said to have called the mountain Masis after his own name. Çiyayê Agirî (Fiery Mountain), Çiyayê Alavhat and Grîdax (Kurdish): This entire tree name referred a volcanic characteristic of Mount Ararat. It is the only name to have a clear, descriptive etymology while also indicating the preservation of folk memory. Kuh-e-Nuh (Noah's Mountain): (Persian: کوه نوح, IPA, Kuh-e Nuh), also influenced by the flood story, this time via the Islamic view of Noah. Mount Ararat is located in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey between Doğubayazıt and Iğdır, near the border with Iran, Armenia and Nakhchivan exclave of Azerbaijan, between the Aras and Murat Rivers. Its summit is located some 16 km (10 mi) west of the Turkey-Iran border and 32 km (20 mi) south of the Turco-Armenian border. The Ararat plain runs along its northwest to western side. Ararat is a stratovolcano, formed of lava flows and pyroclastic ejecta, with no volcanic crater. Above the height of 4,100 m (13,451 ft), the mountain mostly consists of igneous rocks covered by an ice cap. A smaller 3,896 m (12,782 ft) cone, Little Ararat, rises from the same base, southeast of the main peak. The lava plateau stretches out between the two pinnacles. The bases of these two mountains is approximately 1,000 km2 (386 sq mi). The formation of Ararat is hard to retrieve geologically, but the type of vulcanism and the position of the volcano raise the idea that subduction relation vulcanism occurred when the Tethys Ocean closed during the Neogene. An elevation of 5,165 m (16,946 ft) for Mount Ararat is still given by some authorities. However, a number of other sources, such as public domain and verifiable SRTM data and a 2007 GPS measurement show that the alternatively widespread figure of 5,137 m (16,854 ft) is probably more accurate, and that the true elevation may be even lower due to the thick layer of snow-covered ice cap which permanently remains on the top of the mountain. 5,137 m is also supported by numerous topographic maps. It is not known when the last eruption of Ararat occurred; there are no historic or recent observations of large-scale activity recorded. It seems that Ararat was active in the 3rd millennium BC; under the pyroclastic flows, artifacts from the early Bronze Age and remains of human bodies have been found.
However, it is known that Ararat was shaken by a large earthquake in July 1840, the effects of which were largest in the neighborhood of the Ahora Gorge (a northeast trending chasm that drops 1,825 metres (5,988 ft) from the top of the mountain).
Turkey Kutahya 2018 Drone Footage
Kütahya is a city in western Turkey with 237,804 inhabitants, lying on the Porsuk river, at 969 metres above sea level. It is the capital of Kütahya Province, inhabited by some 564 294 people.
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